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雕塑工艺品的小常识

发布日期: 2018-11-14 来源: 点击:次 发布人:admin

雕塑工艺品的小常识

Little knowledge of sculpture and handicrafts
雕塑工艺品的一些小常识你或许了解多少?雕塑工艺品小常识了解下。
How much knowledge do you know about sculpture crafts? Little knowledge of sculpture and crafts.
儿雕琢工艺品是以木、石、砖、竹、象牙、兽骨等资料雕琢的和以粘土、油泥、糯米面等资料刻画而成的小型或装修性手工艺品。是雕琢和刻画工艺品的总称。
Children's carving handicraft is a small or decorative handicraft carved with wood, stone, brick, bamboo, ivory, animal bones and clay, mud, glutinous rice noodles. It is a general term for carving and depicting handicrafts.
品类:我国雕塑工艺品的品种许多。
Category: there are many kinds of sculptures and crafts in China.
按质料分,雕琢类主要有象牙雕琢、砖雕、木雕、石雕、竹刻、果核雕琢、果壳雕琢、根雕、角雕、骨雕、刻瓷、煤精雕琢、贝壳雕琢等;刻画类主要有泥塑、彩塑、油泥塑、面塑、酥油塑、陶塑、瓷塑等。
According to the quality, the carving category mainly includes ivory carving, brick carving, wood carving, stone carving, bamboo carving, core carving, shell carving, root carving, corner carving, bone carving, porcelain carving, coal carving, shell carving, etc. The carving category mainly includes clay sculpture, color sculpture, oil clay sculpture, face sculpture, butter sculpture, pottery, porcelain sculpture, etc.
按用途分:主要有案头雕塑、日用雕塑、修建雕塑、宗教雕塑、墓葬雕塑、玩具雕塑等。案头雕塑是陈列于书架、桌案上供人们赏识的小型雕塑工艺品。日用雕塑是小型装修性的日用品,如石雕的台灯、印章,竹刻的茶叶盒等。修建雕塑主要是用于修建装修的石雕、木雕。宗教雕塑是彩塑、酥油塑或木雕的佛像、佛龛、供桌等。墓葬雕塑为砖雕和木俑、陶俑等。玩具雕塑为供儿童玩的面塑、陶塑、瓷塑、彩塑等工艺品。
According to the use: mainly desk sculpture, daily sculpture, construction sculpture, religious sculpture, tomb sculpture, toy sculpture, etc. Desk sculpture is a small sculpture handicraft displayed on the shelves and tables for people to appreciate. Daily sculpture is a small decoration of daily necessities, such as stone carving lamps, seals, bamboo cartons, and so on. The construction of sculpture is mainly used for building stone and wood carvings. Religious sculptures are Buddha statues, Buddhist shrines, tables and so on, painted sculpture, butter sculpture or wood carving. Tombs are sculptures, wooden figurines, pottery figurines, etc. Toy sculpture is for children to play dough, pottery, porcelain, plastic and other crafts.
雕塑技法:雕塑工艺除了雕琢和刻画外,还有镶嵌、拼镶、张贴等技法。镶嵌是在象牙、木等雕塑工艺品上嵌饰玉石、绿松石、牛骨等并组成图画。拼镶是将若干小标准的质料以粘接、接榫、金属螺丝扣母等办法拼成大标准的质料,并且在外观上不露痕迹,浑如一体。张贴主要用于贝壳雕琢,将各种颜色、形状的贝壳片张贴、堆砌成花卉、人物等形象。
Sculpture techniques: sculpture techniques include carving, mosaic, posting and other techniques besides carving and depicting. Mosaic is made of jade, turquoise, ox bone and so on in ivory and wood sculptures. Mosaic is the process of combining several small standard materials into large standard materials by means of bonding, tenon, metal screw nut, and so on, without any trace on the appearance, as a whole. Posters are mainly used for shell carving. Shells of various colors and shapes are posted and stacked into images of flowers and figures.
雕塑工艺的技法主要有圆雕、半圆雕、浮雕、线雕、镂雕等。
The main techniques of sculpture are circular carving, semi circular carving, relief, line carving, carving and so on.
1.圆雕,不附着任何布景,适宜于从多角度赏识的彻底立体的雕塑技法。
1. the circular carving, which does not adhere to any scenery, is suitable for the thorough three-dimensional sculpture technique appreciated from many angles.
2.半圆雕,我国雕塑工艺的传统技法。以圆雕技法体现著作的主要内容和形象,而以浮雕、阴刻等技法体现其他非必须的内容和形象,并作为衬底,有的则以未经加工的质料作衬底。
2. half carvings, the traditional techniques of sculpture in China. The main contents and images of the works are embodied by round sculpture techniques, while other non-essential contents and images are embodied by relief and engraving techniques. Some of them are used as substrates, while others are made of unprocessed materials.
山东景观雕塑
3.浮雕,在平面上雕塑出凸起的半立体形象的雕塑技法。形象的背面附属在平面上,适宜于从一个方向赏识。它占据空间多,使用规模广,既可同圆雕相结合,又适于制造装修性雕塑。浮雕又分深浮雕和浅浮雕两种。深浮雕又称高浮雕,即从雕塑平面的起位线到浮雕形象高面的厚度与什物厚度相比,超过2/5的浮雕技法;浅浮雕又称薄意,即从雕塑平面的起位线到浮雕形象高面的厚度与什物厚度相比,约在1/10以内的浮雕技法。浮雕也是我国雕塑工艺的传统技法,它经过由浮雕底层到浮雕高面之间形象的互相重叠、上下交叉的联系,具有深远和饱满的长处,适于体现比较热烈、杂乱的局面,如山水景色、亭台楼阁、街市等。在人的角度和浮雕面的联系上,我国浮雕发明了散点透视、破时空透视的共同艺术形式。它们与西洋美术中焦点透视的原理不同,但在视觉上仍然是合理的,具有丰厚和完美的艺术作用。散点透视是指角度不是会集,而是涣散到雕塑工艺品各个形象的大面积上,成为很多涣散的角度,构成浮雕的每个部分都是平视的作用。破时空透视是指彻底打破时刻和空间的约束,按照创造目的的需求,在构图上能够将在时刻上前后相差几百或几十年以及在空间上相隔几千里的事物都安排在一个画面中。
3. relief, sculpture on the surface of the protruding semi-solid image sculpture techniques. The back of the image is attached to the plane, which is suitable for appreciating in one direction. It occupies a lot of space, uses a wide range, can be combined with the same circular carving, but also suitable for manufacturing decorative sculpture. Relief is divided into two kinds: deep relief and shallow relief. Deep relief is also called high relief, that is, from the starting line of the plane of the sculpture to the thickness of the highest surface of the relief image, compared with the thickness of what objects, more than 2/5 of the relief technique; shallow relief is also called thin, that is, from the starting line of the plane of the sculpture to the thickness of the highest surface of the relief image, compared with the thickness of what objects, about 1/10 of the relief technique. Relief is also a traditional technique of sculpture technology in our country. Through the overlapping and cross-linking of images from the bottom to the top of relief, relief has profound and full advantages, and is suitable to reflect a more warm and chaotic situation, such as landscapes, pavilions, pavilions, streets and so on. In terms of the connection between human angle and relief surface, Chinese relief invented the common art form of scattered perspective and space-time perspective. They are different from the principle of focus perspective in Western art, but they are still reasonable in vision and have a rich and perfect artistic function. Scattered perspective refers to the angle is not convergence, but scattered to the large area of each image of the sculpture crafts, become a lot of scattered angles, each part of the relief is a flat-looking role. Spatiotemporal perspective is to completely break the constraints of time and space, according to the needs of creative purposes, in the composition of things that are hundreds or decades apart in time and thousands of miles apart in space can be arranged in a picture.
4.线雕,又称线刻。是以阴线(称阴刻)和凸起的阳线作为雕琢画型手法的技法。大多体现装修性图画。
4. line carving, also known as line engraving. It is a technique of carving and drawing with Yin line (called Yin cut) and raised Yang line. Most of them reflect decorative paintings.
5.镂雕,又称透雕。是将底板或背面镂空的浮雕。能够从正面透过镂雕空间看到浮雕后面的景象。
5., carving is also called carving. It is the relief of the bottom or back. You can see the scene behind the relief from the front side through the carving space.
本文由山东绵邈园林景观工程有限企业整理,大家将为您提供更多的山东景观雕塑常识,有兴趣的朋友可以关注大家,谢谢!!
This article is organized by Shandong Mianmiao Landscape Engineering Co., Ltd. . We will provide you with more knowledge of Shandong landscape sculpture. Interested friends can pay attention to us, thank you!!

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